A skin-lightening ingredient that inhibits tyrosine, an enzyme involved in melanin production. It’s used to treat hyperpigmentation, including melasma, acne scars and age spots. A highly effective ingredient for lightening dark spots and inhibiting melanin production. The FDA allows a maximum of 2% hydroquinone in Over-The-Counter cosmetic formulations. It is important to minimize sun exposure and protect the skin with SPF when using any skin-lightening product. Available without a prescription in strengths up to 2 percent (4 percent in prescription formulas), it inhibits pigment production to lighten dark spots. A highly effective ingredient for lightening dark spots and inhibiting melanin production. The FDA allows a maximum of 2% hydroquinone in Over-The-Counter cosmetic formulations. It is important to minimize sun exposure and protect the skin with SPF when using any skin-lightening product. Hydroquinone is used as a topical application in skin whitening to reduce the color of skin. It does not have the same predisposition to cause dermatitis as metol does. This is a prescription-only ingredient in some countries, including the member states of the European Union under Directives 76/768/EEC:1976. In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration revoked its previous approval of hydroquinone and proposed a ban on all over-the-counter preparations. The FDA officially banned hydroquinone in 2020 as part of a larger reform of the over-the-counter drug review process. The FDA stated that hydroquinone cannot be ruled out as a potential carcinogen. This conclusion was reached based on the extent of absorption in humans and the incidence of neoplasms in rats in several studies where adult rats were found to have increased rates of tumours, including thyroid follicular cell hyperplasias, anisokaryosis (variation in nuclei sizes), mononuclear cell leukemia, hepatocellular adenomas and renal tubule cell adenomas. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics has also highlighted concerns.
Numerous studies have revealed that hydroquinone, if taken orally, can cause exogenous ochronosis, a disfiguring disease in which blue-black pigments are deposited onto the skin; however, skin preparations containing the ingredient are administered topically. The FDA had classified hydroquinone in 1982 as a safe product - generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE), however additional studies under the National Toxicology Program (NTP) were suggested in order to determine whether there is a risk to humans from the use of hydroquinone. NTP evaluation showed some evidence of long-term carcinogenic and genotoxic effects.
While using hydroquinone as a lightening agent can be effective with proper use, it can also cause skin sensitivity. Using a daily sunscreen with a high PPD (persistent pigment darkening) rating reduces the risk of further damage. Hydroquinone is sometimes combined with alpha-hydroxy acids that exfoliate the skin to quicken the lightening process. In the United States, topical treatments usually contain up to 2% in hydroquinone. Otherwise, higher concentrations (up to 4%) should be prescribed and used with caution.
While hydroquinone remains widely prescribed for treatment of hyperpigmentation, questions raised about its safety profile by regulatory agencies in the EU, Japan, and USA encourage the search for other agents with comparable efficacy. Several such agents are already available or under research, including azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, cysteamine, topical steroids, glycolic acid, and other substances. One of these, 4-butylresorcinol, has been proven to be more effective at treating melanin-related skin disorders by a wide margin, as well as safe enough to be made available over the counter.
Subscribe to our e-mails
Receive the latest news in skin care routines and innovations delivered to your Inbox.