This is a sugar molecule that exists naturally in your body. It is an anti-aging moisturizer and skin plumper that absorbs up to 1,000 times its weight in water. Hyaluronic acid is found naturally in the skin and acts as a humectant, meaning it can draw moisture into the skin; products with these molecules allow moisture to bind to the skin without feeling greasy or heavy. A sugar molecule found naturally in the skin, it increases skin's moisture content and prevents water loss. It can hold 1,000 times its weight in water and is typically found in expensive creams and serums. Hyaluronic Acid is a key ingredient in many skincare products for all skin types, both for its moisture-retaining benefits as well as its ability to deliver other active ingredients like Vitamin C to the skin. It can attract up to 1,000 times weight in water from moisture in the air. It is also used in anti-aging skincare to plump the skin with moisture, reducing the appearance of fine lines. HA plays an important role in the normal epidermis. HA also has crucial functions in the reepithelization process due to several of its properties. These include being an integral part of the extracellular matrix of basal keratinocytes, which are major constituents of the epidermis; its free-radical scavenging function, and its role in keratinocyte proliferation and migration.
In normal skin, Hyaluronic acid is found in relatively high concentrations in the basal layer of the epidermis where proliferating keratinocytes are found. CD44 is collocated with HA in the basal layer of epidermis where additionally it has been shown to be preferentially expressed on plasma membrane facing the HA-rich matrix pouches. Maintaining the extracellular space and providing an open, as well as hydrated, structure for the passage of nutrients are the main functions of HA in epidermis. A report found HA content increases in the presence of retinoic acid (vitamin A). The proposed effects of retinoic acid against skin photo-damage and photoaging may be correlated, at least in part, with an increase of skin HA content, giving rise to increased tissue hydration. It has been suggested that the free-radical scavenging property of HA contributes to protection against solar radiation, supporting the role of CD44 acting as a HA receptor in the epidermis. Epidermal hyaluronic acid also functions as a manipulator in the process of keratinocyte proliferation, which is essential in normal epidermal function, as well as during reepithelization in tissue repair. In the wound healing process, HA is expressed in the wound margin, in the connective tissue matrix, and collocating with CD44 expression in migrating keratinocytes.
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